1992-1998 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engines
+ 4. Systems of cooling, heating
+ 5. Fuel, exhaust systems
+ 6. System of decrease in toxicity
+ 7. Transmissions
+ 8. Coupling and semi-axes
+ 9. Brake system
+ 10. Suspension bracket and steering
+ 11. Body
- 12. Electric equipment
12.1. Safety locks
12.2. Burned-through crossing points
12.3. Automatic switches
12.5. Breakers of indexes of turns / alarm system
12.6. The combined switch
12.7. The switches established on a steering column
12.8. Lock of ignition and lock drum
12.9. Switch of a heater of back glass
12.10. Heater of back glass
12.11. Radio receiver and loudspeakers
12.13. Bulbs of headlights of head light
12.14. Headlights of head light
12.15. Replacement of bulbs
12.16. System of day inclusion of headlights
12.17. Engine of screen wipers
12.18. Instrument guard
12.19. Sound signal
12.20. System cruise control
12.21. System of the central lock
12.22. System of window regulators
12.23. Rear-view mirrors with the electric drive
12.24. Safety airbag
+ 12.25. Electroschemes
The system of electric equipment has working tension of 12 Volts and uses negative grounding. A food for headlights and all other elements of electric equipment arrives from the lead-acid accumulator which is recharged from the generator.
In this chapter repair and service operations for the various elements of the electric equipment which have not been connected with the engine are described.
It is necessary to notice that at work with system of electric equipment it is necessary to disconnect a wire of the negative plug of the accumulator for prevention of short circuit and / or ignition.
Detection of malfunctions in electric equipment system
The typical electric chain consists of an element of electric equipment, switches, the relay, engines, the safety locks, burned-through crossing points or automatic switches and wires and connections which connect all elements among themselves and connect them to the accumulator and mass of the car. To simplify process of troubleshooting in the end of this chapter electric circuits of system of electric equipment of the car are given.
Before the beginning of check of a faulty chain, in the beginning study the schematic diagram of this chain to understand from what elements it consists. The source of malfunction can be found quicker if to define, what of elements of this chain work normally. If some elements or chains fail at once, the problem, possibly, consists in the fused safety lock or bad grounding as often one safety lock is responsible for some chains.
Problems with work of system of electric equipment are usually caused by the simple reasons, such as the oxidized or unreliable contacts, the fused safety lock, the fused burned-through crossing point or the faulty relay. Visually check a condition of all safety locks, wires (if it is possible) and connections in a faulty chain before the beginning of check of other elements of this chain. If you are going to use instrumentations, use schematic diagrams to define, what connections are necessary for checking for failure detection.
The main devices necessary for search of malfunction in a chain of electric equipment, are the voltmeter (or a bulb on 12 Volts with connecting wires), the device for check of integrity of chains, the accumulator with connecting wires and a cap wire, it is desirable with the automatic switch which can be used for parallel connection to a chain. Before the beginning of search of malfunction with use of the control and measuring equipment, study schematic diagrams to define connection points.TENSION CHECK
Check of tension is necessary for carrying out, if the electric chain is faulty. Connect one of щупов a control bulb to the negative plug of the accumulator or mass of the car. Connect the second щуп to connection in a checked chain, it is desirable located as it is possible closer to the accumulator or a safety lock. If the control bulb lights up, tension is present: it means that the part of a chain between connection and the accumulator is serviceable. Continue check of other part of a chain in the same way. When you will find a point where tension is absent, it means that the source of malfunction lies between this point and the last point where tension was present. The majority of problems is caused by bad connection.
DETECTION OF SHORT CIRCUIT
One of methods of search of a point of short circuit consists in getting a safety lock and to connect a control bulb or the voltmeter to plugs of connection of a safety lock when all other elements of electric equipment of this chain are switched off. In a chain there should not be a tension. Move wires here and there and watch a control bulb. If it lights up, means, somewhere in this area short-circuits one of wires, it is probable in that place where isolation was wiped. The same test can be carried out on any other element of a chain, including the switch.CHECK OF RELIABILITY OF GROUNDING
Inspect reliability of grounding to check reliability of connection of an element of electric equipment to mass of the car. Disconnect the accumulator and connect one of device wires for check of integrity of chains to mass of the car. Connect the second wire to connection or a point of grounding which is subject to check. If the control bulb lights up, means, grounding as it should be.CHECK OF INTEGRITY OF THE CHAIN
Check of integrity of a chain is necessary to define, whether is not present in a gap chain. Disconnect tension from a chain and check a chain on integrity by means of a bulb with the connected power supply. Connect bulb wires by the chain ends (or to the positive end and mass of the car); if the control bulb lights up, in a chain there are no gaps. If the bulb does not light up, means, somewhere in a chain there is a gap. Precisely it is also possible to check the switch, having connected a control bulb to switch plugs. After turning on of the switch, the control bulb should light up.STAY OF A CHAIN BY NEZAMKNUTA
Visually to find not closed chain happens rather difficult as the oxidized or bad connection of contacts is often difficult for noticing. It is sometimes rather simple to move a wire of connection or a wire in a plait of wires to eliminate this malfunction. Unreliable work of elements of electric equipment also is often caused by the oxidized or bad connection.
Finding of malfunction in system of electric equipment is represented rather simple operation if to understand that work of system of electric equipment is based that the current flows from the accumulator through wires, switches, the relay, safety locks and burned-through crossing points to electric equipment elements (a bulb, the engine etc.) and on mass of the car, from where it arrives back in the accumulator. Any malfunction in system of electric equipment represents a hindrance in a current current from the accumulator or to the accumulator.